Payment for ecosystem services and motivational crowding: Experimental insights regarding the integration of plural values via non-monetary incentives

Incentives based on extrinsic motivations such as Payments for ecosystem Services (PES) could negatively affect intrinsic motivations (i.e., motivational crowding-out). This effect may be evidenced when conservation levels, after PES intervention, decline relative to those existing before PES implementation. However, still few experimental studies have assessed PES effects on motivations once economic incentives are missing. […]